Groupe 15 @ Sophia : Globalization – Pros and Cons

In our group, we have debated, in terms of pros and cons, how we apprehend the globalization process.

First of all, let’s evocate pros of such a phenomenon:

* Spread and sharing knowledge and diversified goods and services

* Markets openness which creates plenty of opportunities for companies and individuals (like new jobs opportunities and new market share)

* Better communication between citizens, states and international institutions

* Improvement of transport (cost and speed) and ways of communication

* New technologies and scientific progress which permits a improvement of medicine and so an increase of life expectancy all around the world

And then, cons of globalization which of course constitute a lot of challenges for the future:

 * The immense enrichment is misallocated and the wealth gap between poor and rich countries has increased

* Globalization is from the beginning an occidental process which resulted in the disappearance of some culture and ancestral knowledge

* Increase of black market and international criminality

* The diminution of Nation States role in the democratic and social fields

* Global warming and environmental destruction

* As the interdependence increases, the systemic risk of a global collapse from financials actors (from “Too Big to Fail” banks) is more present

* Delocalisation and competition between workers without same social rights

As a conclusion, we can assert that globalization permit to enhance our way of living and personal comfort (life expectancy, immense middle class emergence, better transports and communication for sharing knowledge). However, as we mentioned earlier, big challenges are ahead and it the purpose of course existing international institutions and politics but first of all citizens and companies.

Group5 Paris PPMBD – Globalization’s Pros and Cons

                Globalization has a great impact on culture. It leads to wide spread of western culture all over the world. Culture relates to language, beliefs, customs and traditions. Many languages are getting disappeared due to wide spread of English all over the world. From the last few years the study in English was made mandatory in many developed and developing countries.

The wide increase of social media and blogs had great impact on culture in many countries. The countries like china and Iran have blocked many social media sites and blogs due to the decrease of their culture and values.

The globalization is making the world more heterogeneous and often homogeneous too, by creating the harder connections between the cultures of different countries. For example, the handshake, the western culture of greeting people had become the most common way of greeting in the culture based countries also. And the Japanese sushi can be taken by any country in the world. But many religious heads of different countries have been trying to fight against the globalization as they thought that the globalization is killing the tradition values. Many countries made it mandatory to wear the respective country’s traditional dressed as dress code to enter into their religious places like temples, mosques etc.

The globalization had created the positive impact on the personal values and negative impact on the cultural values. The education and development of women in many countries have raised incredibly in many countries due to the increase of globalization. Coming out of the traditional values many parents have taken the decisions which leads to the personal development of their girl child rather than the culture. Due to the increase of studying in abroad, all the cultures and values are becoming familiar to all the countries.

The intercultural marriages also play the vital role in the increase of globalized values so that one can respect the values and adapt to the others culture which leads to the mixtures of two cultures to the next generation.

The globalization had created the new culture of food habits all over the world. Mainly the culture based countries like India had great impact on it. The western food cultures and western food habits have been adapted by the people in these countries. This brought the world under one roof.

So finally the globalization seems to be a treasure of cultures so that every culture respects the other and the adaptation of different cultures seems to eradicate the cultural differences all over the world.

           Globalisation will have a greatest impact on political, economical, and ideological characters which became a threat to the cultural diversity. The rise of globalisation leads to population shifts and cultural clashes. Due to the fast increase of globalisation, the society was failed to adapt and adjust to the different cultures and this lead to the clash of cultures in the society.

 As the globalization increased the migration of people between the countries, in some countries it leads to local and non local issues, which results in the un-expectable changes in the society and human nature. For example, from the past few years the Indians in Australia have been murdered by Australians with the open reason that the Indians are earning more than the local Australian non employees in Australia. And as the media became international, all the news over the world was brought to us in the fraction of second. It was very useful in some contexts and in the same phase it leads to the illness of cultural stability.

As the western tradition is very attractable and easily adaptable to the youth, it lead to the loss of traditions in many countries, which lead to the autocratic leadership of government. Though the Asian countries of beware of the western tradition in the past, the pub and party culture was slowly getting rose in those countries. Many countries like Thailand, Pakistan and some other Asian countries were governed by the military due this loss of traditional values. Recently, the Thai government was handled by the military, and they banned all the entertainment channels and theatres and strictly ordered that the western culture seen ever will be punished severely.

In countries like India many organizations have taken place as the youth are not giving respect to the traditions of India, and they adapted the power to save the Indian tradition in the violent and non violent manners.

Cultures and traditions in any societies are valued for their beliefs and practises.  The follow of these beliefs and traditions will be more to an extent in developing countries than the developed countries. Many people argue and agree that this globalization leads to the rapid loss of local languages, art, and music.  Due to the fastest increase of technology, may it have a lot of uses to make the works and severities easier, but many under developing countries argue that the wide increase of the technology lead to the loss of cultural and traditional values as the western culture is adapted by the youth and it is directing the youth in a wrong manner.

6@Sophia.AMAIS. Globalization pros and cons


Globalization – the concept is very controversial. On the one hand is the process of global economic, political and cultural integration and unification. On the other hand it is world division of labor migration on a global scale of capital, human and industrial resources, standardization of legislation, as well as convergence and fusion of different cultures. As a result of globalization, there is a connection of many states, but at the same time there is an increase in the number of problems they face. Weak states from the process of globalization can become even weaker. Whereas strong – multiply their capabilities in both the economy and politics.

The process of Globalization is clearly ambiguous and contradictory, so it is necessary to examine and consider comprehensively, taking into account both the interests of all countries, and each individually.

6@Sophia. Urban Population to Reach 3.9 Billion by Year End.

UNITED NATIONS, Sep 23 (IPS) – People living in cities already outnumber those in rural areas and the trend does not appear to be reversing, according to UN-Habitat, the Nairobi-based agency for human settlements, which has warned that planning is crucial to achieve sustainable urban growth.

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Sanitation infrastructure in India’s sprawling slums belies the official story that the country is well on its way to providing universal access to safe, clean drinking water. Credit: Malini Shankar/IPS

“In the hierarchy of the ideas, first comes the urban design and then all other things,” Joan Clos, executive director of UN-Habitat, told IPS while he was in New York for a preparatory meeting of Habitat III, the world conference on sustainable urban development that will take place in 2016.3

“Urbanisation, plotting, building – in this order,” he said, explaining that in many cities the order is reversed and it is difficult to solve the problems afterwards.

According to the U.N. Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), urban population grew from 746 million in 1950 to 3.9 billion in 2014 and is expected to surpass six billion by 2045. Today there are 28 mega-cities worldwide and by 2030 at least 10 million people will live in 41 mega-cities.

A U.N. report shows that urban settlements are facing unprecedented demographic, environmental, economic, social and spatial challenges, and spontaneous urbanisation often results in slums.

Although the proportion of the urban population living in slums has decreased over the years, and one of the Millennium Development Goals achieved its aim of improving the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers, the absolute number has continued to grow, due in part to the fast pace of urbanisation.

The same report estimates that the number of urban residents living in slum conditions was 863 million in 2012, compared to 760 million in 2000.

“In the past urbanisation was a slow-cooking dish rather than a fast food thing,” Clos said.

“We have seen it in multiple cases that spontaneous urbanisation doesn’t take care for the public space and its relationship with the buildable plots, which is the essence of the art of building cities,” he added.

Relinda Sosa is the president of National Confederation of Women Organised for Life and Integrated Development in Peru, an association with 120,000 grassroots members who work on issues directly affecting their own communities to make them more inclusive, safe and resilient. They run a number of public kitchens to ensure food security, map the city to identify issues that may create problems, and work on disaster prevention.

The link between the public and elected leaders is crucial, and Sosa’s organisation tries to bring them together through the participation of grassroots women.

Carmen Griffiths, a leader of GROOTS Jamaica, an organisation that is part of the same network as Sosa’s, told IPS, “When access to basic services is lacking, women are the ones who have to face these situations first.

“We look at settlements patterns in the cities, we talk about densification in the city, people living in the periphery, in informal settlements, in housing that is not regular, have no water, no sanitation in some cases, without proper electricity. We talk about what causes violence to women in the city,” Griffiths added.

Griffiths meets every month with the women in her organisation: they share their issues and needs and ensure they are raised with local authorities.

Griffiths also sits on the advisory board of UN-Habitat, to voice the needs of her people at the global level and then bring the knowledge back to the communities, she explained.

About the relationship between urban and rural areas, Maruxa Cardama, executive project coordinator at Communitas, Coalition for Sustainable Cities & Regions, told IPS that an inclusive plan is needed.

Cities are dependent on the natural resources that rural areas provide, including agriculture, so urban planning should not stop where high rise buildings end, she explained, adding that this would also ensure rural areas are provided with the necessary services and are not isolated.

Although they will not be finalised until 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) currently include a standalone goal dedicated to making “cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.”



41@sophia : Majencia: story of a reborn

Majencia is the French market leader in the office furniture and layout of work spaces, located in Noyon, Picardie.

It supports all development projects from conception, through the design, manufacture of furniture, installation and services.

In 2004, the company “Samas France” (now Majencia since 2009) is in crisis.

Indeed, since the end of 90’s its market continues to decrease.

So, the company decides to offshore its production line of desk pedestals to China in order to reduce the production cost and so the sales price with the aim of increase its volumes produced.

But it’s not sufficient and the Samas France’s object cannot be achieved:  business is continuing to be penalized by insufficient volumes and Samas France is going into bankruptcy filing and receivership and its Noyon site’s employees are confronted to technical unemployment.

The company is facing uncertain futures.

At the end of 2004, the company decides to ask Vincent Gruau’s help to restore the financial situation and help it to get back on track.

Thanks to Vincent Gruau, Samas France chose to change all its organization (commercial, trade, logistic…) with the aim to become the leader of office’s market at the end of 2010.

The best decision Mr Gruau took is to relocate the production line of desk pedestals delocalized in China.

This strategic choice allows the company the management of the whole production chain from conception to manufacture; a model that Majencia is the only one to follow in its market.

Wishing to enter the business with a view of sustainable development, Vincent Gruau, in September 2008, decided to conduct a Management Buy- Out ( MBO) and offers six executive members to join him.

Then, the Samas France’s turnover increased by over 5% (105 million €) and Samas France becomes Majencia.

Majencia gains in independence, development and autonomy and becomes the leader we know today.

6@Sophia: ECONOMY & WORK Microsoft Admits Keeping $92 Billion Offshore to Avoid Paying $29 Billion in US Taxes

August 2014.

Microsoft Corp. is currently sitting on almost $29.6 billion it would owe in US taxes if it repatriated the $92.9 billion of earnings it is keeping offshore, according to disclosures in the company’s most recent annual filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The amount of money that Microsoft is keeping offshore represents a significant spike from prior years, and the levies the company would owe amount to almost the entire two-year operating budget of the company’s home state of Washington.

The company says it has “not provided deferred US income taxes” because it says the earnings were generated from its “non-US subsidiaries” and then “reinvested outside the US.” Tax experts, however, say that details of the filing suggest the company is using tax shelters to dodge the taxes it owes as a company domiciled in the United States.

In response to a request for comment, a Microsoft spokesperson referredInternational Business Times to 2012 US Senate testimony from William J. Sample, the company’s corporate VP for worldwide tax. He said: “Microsoft’s tax results follow from its business, which is fundamentally a global business that requires us to operate in foreign markets in order to compete and grow. In conducting our business at home and abroad, we abide by US and foreign tax laws as written. That is not to say that the rules cannot be improved — to the contrary, we believe they can and should be.”

The disclosure in Microsoft’s SEC filing lands amid an intensifying debate over the fairness of US-based multinational corporations using offshore subsidiaries and so-called “inversions” to avoid paying American taxes. Such maneuvers — although often legal – threaten to signficantly reduce US corporate tax receipts during an era marked by government budget deficits.

White House officials have called the tactics an affront to “economic patriotism” and President Obama himself has derided “a small but growing group of big corporations that are fleeing the country to get out of paying taxes.” In a July speech, he said such firms are “declaring their base someplace else even though most of their operations are here.”

“I don’t care if it’s legal; it’s wrong,” Obama said. Meanwhile, Democratic lawmakers have been pushing legislation they say would discourage US companies from avoiding taxes through offshore subsidiaries. The proposals are being promoted in advance of the 2014 elections, as polling suggests the issue could be a winner for the party. In Illinois, the issue has already taken center stage in the state’s tightly contested gubernatorial campaign.

Because Microsoft has not declared itself a subsidiary of a foreign company, the firm has not technically engaged in an inversion. However, according to a 2012 US Senate investigation, the company has in recent years used its offshore subsidiaries to substantially reduce its tax bills.

US Sen. Carl Levin, D-MI, said at the time: “Microsoft US avoids US taxes on 47 cents of each dollar of sales revenue it receives from selling its own products right here in this country. The product is developed here. It is sold here, to customers here. And yet Microsoft pays no taxes here on nearly half the income.”

Apple and General Electric, which also employ offshore subsidiaries, are the only US-based companies that have more money offshore than Microsoft, according to data compiled by Citizens for Tax Justice. In all, a May report by CTJ found that “American Fortune 500 corporations are likely saving about $550 billion by holding nearly $2 trillion of ‘permanently reinvested’ profits offshore.” The report also found that “28 these corporations reveal that they have paid an income tax rate of 10 percent or less to the governments of the countries where these profits are officially held, indicating that most of these profits are likely in offshore tax havens.”

Microsoft’s use of the offshore subsidiary tactics has exploded in the last five years, with the amount of Microsoft earnings shifted offshore jumping 516 percent since 2008, according to SEC filings.

According to Microsoft’s filings, if the company repatriates the $92.9 billion it is holding offshore, it would face a 31.9 percent US corporate tax rate. US law generally permits companies to deduct the foreign corporate taxes they’ve already paid from the US’s official 35 percent corporate tax rate. According to CTJ’s Richard Phillips, that means Microsoft’s disclosure implies the company is paying just 3.1 percent in the locales where it is currently holding the cash. Phillips says such an extremely low rate strongly suggests the firm is keeping the earnings not just in relatively low-tax locales like Ireland, Singapore and others the company has disclosed, but also in smaller countries like Bermuda that are considered true tax havens.

According to a Wall Street Journal report in 2012 about companies reducing transparency about their subsidiaries, Microsoft “once disclosed more than 100 subsidiaries [but] reported just 13 in its 2003 annual report and 11 in its 2012 report.”


6@ Sophia: Japan in new Antarctic whaling program

THE Japanese government will devise a new plan to resume whale hunts in Antarctic waters, a news report says, after it was banned earlier this year from pursuing its research whaling program in the Southern Ocean.
WHALING experts will meet in October to draw up a new whaling program, Kyodo News agency reported.
The meeting is intended to mollify the opposition from anti-whaling countries and promote transparency, Kyodo reported, citing unnamed sources.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague decided in late March to halt Japan’s whaling program, ruling that it contravenes a 1986 moratorium on whale hunting.
The ruling prompted Tokyo to give up sending a whaling fleet to the Southern Ocean for the current financial year through March 2015.
The International Whaling Commission began a four-day convention in Slovenia on Monday, where Japan and anti-whaling countries such as Australia are clashing over Tokyo’s attempt to seek a continuation of whaling on a smaller scale, Kyodo reported.
Japan needs to submit its new program in early November so that it can be discussed at the whaling body’s scientific committee meeting scheduled for May 2015, the report said.


Group7CFM@Paris : Globalization 2014-2030, how will it impact your gameplan?

Globalization and its quickness from today to 2030 is certainly a very delicate incognito of this challenging and selective job market. Nowadays, more than ever, young professionals are required to think globally in order to reach the careers that they have targeted. Obviously, the geopolitical turmoil and the looming crisis that we are living have increased complexity for our professional future. But we cannot deny the positive aspects of globalization.

Indeed, it has encouraged liberalized trade, study and work internationally but above all it offers much more job opportunities. Moreover, The Chinese students explained, how they really saw the benefits of globalization in their studies since China entered the WTO in 2001. Indeed the Chinese government has paid more attention to the cultivation of global talents and promoted Chinese companies to go international. Even if it is getting tough, this gives them much more career opportunities than before.

Each one in our multi-national group agrees to the fact that, an extra international knowledge is required to stand out in the crowd. That is why we have made the choice to complete a master degree in an international environment. With Skema, a global business school that manages to level the huge gap between the academic hemisphere and the job market, we will have the requirements to understand better, globalization and its effects.

However in the current updating and evolving world, we must be conscious that this is no longer enough if we are competing globally. We truly believe that our determination, our mindset and our skills are essential to tick the right boxes required by companies and organizations.

To put it in a nutshell, globalization gives us great challenges in our professional career but we have to be optimistic and embrace this challenges and its positive sides if we really want to succeed.

Group 10 @Sophia : Globalization 2014-2030: how will it impact our gameplan

Whatever we like it or not, Globalization is the key factor running our professional life. Thus, our game plan must take it into account so that we can maximize its profits and lessen its negative outcomes.

Globalization offers tremendous opportunities in terms of mobility and job offers. Nowadays whoever speaks English is entitled to work anywhere and this trend is bound to expand for years to come. The prevalence of western way of life and work tools makes it easier for us to adapt in foreign countries: all companies use the same office software applications (e.g. Excel and SAP) and countries themselves are “opened” to western culture, as we find the same brands, the same food and technology networks, thus making it easier for us to feel “at home” while abroad. Technology will probably shorten long distance flights, with increased cost-competitive prices. Shortened distances and less cultural boundaries will promote knowledge economy and develop interactions between countries and people: we will have to be very flexible and open-minded in order to experience the best part of both cultures.

On the other hand, we will have to avoid a few booby- traps. We are already overwhelmed by data streams; one of the major stakes for the next 20 years will be to filter these increasing volumes of information and determine what to analyze, and what to put aside. As Globalization expands, we will also be in competition with always more people and we will deal with higher job requirements and professional expectations. Following the recent developments of labor codes around the world, it might also be a more hazardous business world to thrive in. Eventually, current geopolitical clashes bear the risks of seeing certain parts of the world closing their door to Globalization. We could ask the question the other way, but we will know how to react as change leaders and adaptable managers.

6@Sophia: Essential role of Environmental Sustainability in Globalization in the case of Airbus.

1) The Impacts of Globalization on International Air Transport Activity. Problems with sustainable development in this sector.

2) Airbus group. Analyse of actions regarding sustainability and Social Responsibility.

3) “Looking forward”. Role of Globalization for the future of the Air Transportation sector.